Universal Declaration Of Human Rights


Now more than ever, human rights are something everyone should be aware of and abide by. The Universal Declaration Of Human Rights (UDHR) as we know it were drafted in 1948, and became a milestone document when it comes to the rights of everyone in the world. 

In academic research papers and dissertations, the UDHR serves as a fundamental reference, offering a comprehensive framework for analyzing and understanding human rights issues globally. Its universal principles provide a solid base for scholarly discussions, ensuring a consistent and globally recognized standard in human rights studies.


The Universal Declaration Of Human Rights was drawn up, first and foremost, to recognise the equal and inalienable rights of all human beings.

As the UDHR was drawn up as a response to the events of the Second World War, one of the main aims of the document was to enable all human beings to freedom of speech and freedom from fear. 

The Universal Declaration Of Human Rights

In the UHDR document, there are 30 human rights that are outlined, as follows:

Article One: Every human is born free and equal. As they are born with reason and conscience, they should act towards one another in accordance with these rights.

Article Two: Every single person is entitled to the rights set out in this document. This is the case no matter a person’s race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinions, property, birth or any other status. No distinction should be made on the basis of the territory or country that a person belongs to.

Article Three: Every person has the right to life, liberty, and security.

Article Four: Slavery is prohibited in all its forms; no person should be held in slavery or servitude.

Article Five: No person will be subjected to torture or any cruel or degrading treatment.

Article Six: Every person has the right to be recognised as a person before the law.

Article Seven: Every person is equal before the law, meaning every person gets equal protection provided by the law. Any discrimination against a person before the law is a violation of their human rights.

Article Eight: If a person is discriminated against by the law, then they have equal rights for a remedy by the agencies that carried out this discrimination.

Article Nine: No person should be arrested, detained or exiled arbitrarily.

Article Ten: Every person is entitled to a fair and impartial hearing by a tribunal, when determining their rights and obligations and the criminal charges applied to them.

Article Eleven: This is split up into two parts:

  1. Anyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proven guilty according to the law, at a public trial.
  2. No person will be held guilty of an act that was not an act against the law at the time it was committed. A heavier penalty should also not be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the offence was committed.

Article Twelve: No person should be subjected to interference with their home or family, or suffer attacks upon their reputation. If they are subjected to this, they should be protected in accordance with the law.

Article Thirteen: Every person has the right to freedom of movement, as well as residence between the borders of each state. They also should have the right to leave and return to their own country when they wish to.

Article Fourteen: Every person has the right to visit and enjoy other countries, free of the risk of persecution. This right cannot be invoked in the case of crimes or acts contrary to the principles of the United nations.

Article Fifteen: Every person as the right to a nationality. No person should be denied the right to a nationality or denied the right to change their nationality.

Article Sixteen: Men and women who are of age have the right to enter into marriage and start a family, without limitations due to race, nationality, and religion. They are also entitled to equal rights at the end of a marriage. All marriages should be entered into with only the free and full consent of both parties involved.

Article Seventeen: Everyone has the right to own property, either alone or with others. They also have the right not to be arbitrarily deprived of their property.

Article Eighteen: Everyone has the right to freedom of thought and religion. They also have the right to change religion, and practice their religion either alone or with others.

Article Nineteen: Everyone has the right to freedom of expression, and the right to hold opinions without interference.

Article Twenty: Everyone has the right to peacefully assemble, as well as the right to not join an association if they should not wish to.

Article Twenty One: Everyone has the right to take part in the government of their country. They also have the right to access of public services in their country. The will of the people should be the basis of the government, which should be expressed in genuine elections.

Article Twenty Two: All people have the right to social security, and the right to free development of their personality.

Article Twenty Three: Every person has the right to work, and to choose how they are employed. They also have the right to work without discrimination, and for equal pay. They also have the right to fair remuneration that enables them and their family to live in dignity. Additionally, every person as the right to join a trade union.

Article Twenty Four: Everyone has the right to rest, as well as the right to limitation of working hour and holiday pay.

Article Twenty Five: Everyone has the right to a good standard of living, including adequate housing, food, clothing, and medical care. In the case of unemployment, sickness, disability, or old age, everyone has the right to necessary social services. Motherhood and childhood entitles people special care, as needed.

Article Twenty Six: Everyone has the right to education, which should be compulsory and free. Education should be directed to help all people develop fully and promote human rights. All parents have the right to choose the kind of education their child enters.

Article Twenty Seven: Everyone has the right to share in the cultural life of their community. That includes enjoying the arts and scientific advancements. They also have the right to protection of the interests of any scientific or artistic production they make.

Article Twenty Eight: Everyone is entitled to a society that fully realizes the rights set forth in this document.

Article Twenty Nine: Everyone has a duty to their community to enable the free development of every person. Everyone should be subject to laws only that help promote the freedoms outlined here.

Article Thirty: Nothing outlined in this document can be used for the destruction of any of the rights outlined in it.

With these declarations, the United Nations aimed to fully realize the rights of every person, and further human society as a whole.