Strategic International Business Management


Strategic International Business Management


Employees are vital towards the success or failure of institutions. Apparently, all prosperous businesses around the globe have their scope of triumph emanating from the better treatment of the recruits and proper coordination of activities amongst the workers. Undoubtedly, workers find it interesting and self-driven to perform the required task in the establishments with the greater concerns of their welfare and those with the reputed working environment that allows for the universal interaction amongst the workforce (Burgess 2005, p.325). To keep the active performance and achievement of the staffs, the management has the noble roles to undertake. For instance, the executives must excel in practicing a recommended leadership, award enthusiasm services to the subjects and maintain efficiency in change administration. Likewise, the individuals must be willing to undertake the ethical virtues in the establishments as well as being acquainted with the diversity management exclusiveness (Burgess 2005, p.330). The paper has assessed the relevant theories of leadership, motivation, and change management to explain how well a manager in a modern job setting with the diversity of experience and culture would succeed in inspiring his workers. Similarly, the research brings into a broader view the techniques of handling the diversity, especially in a multi-cultural phenomenon. Additionally, the research will focus on the measures of promoting professionalism and the ethos in the managerial context.

The use of Leadership to Motivate Employees

The impact of leaders in every business has a significant implication on the side of employees and is undisputed. Leaders are likely to define the attitude and morale of the workforce. According to Landis, Hill, and Harvey (2014, p.97), the coercive administrators lower the optimism of the subjects who entirely undertake the low profile in exploiting their efforts to achieve the best for the organization. In attaining the climax towards motivating the employees, the leadership theories, such as trait, behavioral, and the contingency models would be essential.

The Trait Theory

In trait model, the characters of leaders are considered as the tools for success. According to Latham (2015, p.107), the administrators who are bearing the exclusive attributes such as drive, integrity, tenacity, empathy, and self-confidence are likely to prosper in their supervision duties. Likewise, as a manager, I would ensure that the prevalence of the trustworthiness and openness while interacting with the employees. Also, sympathy would greatly prevail in the governance to show the level of understanding of the workers’ situations. Similarly, the self-assurance quality would substantially achieve in strengthening the confidence of the personnel in their duties. Furthermore, Landis, Hill, and Harvey (2014, p.97) affirm that the executives with reputable mannerisms actively go beyond acting as the role models to the juniors. They are also creating a significant impact and challenge on the staff to mimic the positive virtues that are critical for their personal development and overall achievement of the organizational goals.

The Behavioral Theory

The behavioral model assists in determining the best actions to capitalize in rather than relying wholly on the existing traits (Olafsen et al., 2015, p.447). In the platform, the managers are expected to allow for team development, an instance that encourages the group cooperation amongst the workers. Notably, the solidarity in an organization would improve the morale of our employees since they can easily share information and expertise amidst themselves. Also, the practice would develop the innate inspiration to perform best especially in the instance where members are free and open to the others with the advanced trust and confidence.

On the other hand, the behavioral theory allows for the inclusive and democratic platform where workforce freely takes part in the decision-making of the business. According to (Olfsen et al., 2015, p.448), the opportunity for the staff to form part of the programs of the establishments bestows certain benefits including feeling involved in the activities of their companies. Also, workers would develop the tendency of exploiting their skills to realize the recognizable output to the organization. Therefore, I would ensure that work coordination is achieved in the various sections of the job setting so as to nurture new employees as well as improving their relations.

The Contingency Theory

The contingency model seeks to identify the needs and requirements of the employees while considering the nature of the tasks required achieving the goals of the organization (Latham 2014, p.108). The approach calls for an undertaking of the various aspects such as direction, supporting, coaching, and delegation of duties to the staff. As a manager, I would ensure that the recruits undergo a prior training before beginning to work in the establishment as well as the periodic teaching concerning the job requirements to the existing workforce. Notably, the tendency would give them an acquaintance with the job requirements to increase their proficiency. Also, we would introduce the supportive culture that appreciates the efforts of the staff by giving necessary resources for prosperity. For instance, the enterprise would allocate funds to support the research and new inventions by our workers as well as providing scholarships and offers to some competent employees to advance their studies to improve on skills.

Inspiration of Employees Using Motivation Theories

Motivation theory strives to explain what is steering up people to behave in a given manner (Cerasoli, Nicklin, and Ford 2014, p.980). For instance, the expectation model proposes that individuals usually chose to behave based on the anticipated outcomes at the end. In practice, people would readily accept longer working hours following the assurance of pay rise (Maruping et al., 2017, p.624). Apparently, the foundations of expectation platform include the valence that entails the value of the reward, the instrumentality that carries the belief of prizes upon accomplishing a given tax, and the expectancy that incorporates the confidence that the input will realize the desired goals due to the experience.

Application of Expectation Theory in and Other Motivation Models in Work Setting

In every working organization, there are radicals who keep on objecting every decision and new activities (Maruping et al., 2017, p.625). For instance, managers would face opposition while introducing the new jobs from some workforce who may deliberately refuse since their rewards might not be necessarily entailed in the new program. As a result, I would suggest for the use of innovative and compensation techniques with prior consultation to get the workers familiar with it. During the event, we would like to encourage employees’ contribution on the considerable amount of salary to be awarded per every additional work to improve their morale.

On the other hand, we would include the compensation incentives directly into the specific performance objectives to drive the urge of workers’ excellence. For instance, we would directly award the top performers as a mode of appreciating the industrious nature. Besides the monetary benefits, the intangible reimbursements such as a free trip to certain exclusive places would improve the commitment of the workforce to show unrelenting passion towards the attainment of the established goals.

The introduction of the employee's development programs and recognition in our establishment would work following the acquired needs theory. The models affirm that individuals are motivated when they feel they are much stronger and occupy higher rank above others. Further, the concept reiterates that workers struggle to subconsciously obtain the personal achievement, social attainment, or power. Apparently, mentoring and distinguishing the workforce would give us a platform of boosting the self-esteem of the staff and the feelings of achievement (Maruping et al., 2017, p. 627). Also, the growth packages such as the allowance for promoting the best performing staff to the higher ranks would initiate a stiff competition for excellence, thus improving the operation efficiency of the establishment.

Similarly, the motivator factors and hygiene issues of Hertzberg’s Two Factor Theory would assist in stirring the workforce. According to the model, the hygienic dynamics include the salaries, company policies, and benefits, relationship with the leaders and co-workers as well as the safe working environment (Lukwago, Basheka, and Odubuker 2014, p.60). On the other hand, the instigators entail career progression and the level of enjoying the chores.

In practice, we would ensure that health, protection, and maximum care of staff are in place. Also, the considerable and fair remuneration that is in accordance to the changing economy would appeal to our personnel. Additionally, we would devise the rational organizational practices that consider the welfare of our laborers, such as giving paid relief to the staff and giving an exclusive consideration especially during the events of sickness and passing away of the relatives of our teams.

The Change Management Theories and Their Application in Workers Motivation

Changes are inevitable in any organization. While opting to introduce the new modifications in our establishment, the Kotte’s 8-model would appear vital in accomplishing workers motivation. First, the theory upholds that the administrators should undertake the preliminary steps to create the urgency of the transformation (Ng and Kee 2013, p.42). It involves holding an open caucus with the aim of convincing the key stakeholders, including workers, to feel part of the plan. In response, I would vividly explain the opportunities related to the new ventures and the threats of overreliance on the present methods by our firm to the staffs. It is important to steer up the recruits while anticipating new deviations. Furthermore, Kotter affirms that the successful modifications are attained with at least 75 percent support of the internal participants-the personnel.

Secondly, I would form the powerful coalition to spearhead the proposed changes. Notably, we would choose the best departmental leaders alongside the external stakeholders with the propensity of enforcing the modifications. The influence of the charismatic front-runners would immensely motivate the workforce to have all focus towards attaining the new variations (Bastedo, Samuels, and Kleinman 2014, p.397). In support, Kotter reiterates that managers should have a mixture of various departmental leaders with different competencies to mobilize the group and shape their attitudes towards accomplishing the new schemes.

Third, we would create a clear vision for change. Kotte explains that the flawless dream equips every worker with the capability of what is expected of them (Hornstein 2015, p.292). With a proper elucidation of the reasons for introducing modification and the strategies to realize their execution to the employees, the inspiration of the workforce would be attained. Purportedly, everyone would have all the points of discontentment addressed and worked courageously towards achieving the proposed schemes.

Also, communication of the vision is very critical in motivating the recruits. According to Kotte, managers should hold open, frequent, and non-biased conversations that aim at reinforcing the purported changes. As a manager in a modern workplace, I would ensure that the departmental heads and modification agents hold a series of meetings with the entire workforce to emphasize the new plans. Additionally, we would initiate a platform that offers the open and honest solution to the employee's grievances and concerns.

Next, we would shift much effort in removing the obstacles to changes. Kotte assures managers to establish structures that foster modifications while periodically monitoring and removing the barriers for the variations (Hornstein 2015, p.293). To achieve the practice, we would identify the contradictory for new inventions and create the sense and wider outlook. Additionally, we would hesitate in curbing the limitations upon realization so that our workforce can enjoy being in the establishment.

On the other hand, we would establish the short-term wins for the new schemes and ideas. Ideally, workers get impressed and motivated upon realization of success after committing their efforts. In his model, Kotte charges the change team to work ceaselessly to identify the short-term and realistic goals that inspire the labors. In response, we will conduct a thorough analysis of the targets including the economical nature and simplicity. Moreover, (Hornstein 2015, p.295) affirms that the personnel who are conversant with the job requirements enjoy their work and are ever fascinated with their organizations.

Managing the Diversity and Their Effective Application in the Cross-Cultural Context of the Organization to realize Employees Motivation

In every firm, there are various types of people with a dissimilar dimension such as in race and ethnicity, culture and religion, beliefs, assumptions, and attitudes. Purportedly, the managers are supposed to understand and appreciate the variability and always focus on handling the multiplicity exhibited by the workers. Therefore, the diversity management seeks to overcome the cultural prejudice while installing the new values.

According to Taylor Cox, managers should create the pluralism platform in the workplace where the minorities are equally valued and their rights respected (Lozano and Escrich 2017, p.679). Further, Cox affirms and cautions the executives to undertake the initiatives that hamper the exploitation of the marginalized in the job environment. Similarly, we will identify notify the recruits from the rare cultural background or with peculiar attributes and foster their maximum protection and establish the support groups to listen to and motivate the minorities. That would promote equal chances of existence and confidence within the job, thus boosting the morale of every recruit.

Managing Diversity by Professor Nancy Adler

Professor Nancy Adler puts forth that the diversity administration could be attained by managers when they perform critical task-related functions (Harzing and Adler 2016, p 142). He contends that managers should purely use the team ability while selecting a fraction of the staff for to represent the rest rather than focusing on ethnicity and partialities. Besides fostering heterogeneous attitudes in the organization, workers would present a strong passion for attaining the merits in the establishment. Similarly, in my administration, we would equally avail open chances to all employees of various backgrounds without discriminating them.

As well, the mutual respect as outlined in the model of Professor Nancy Adler directs the administrators to introduce and embrace the equal status, close contacts, and the prevalence of cooperative efforts that are geared towards achieving a common goal. As a manager, I would ensure that maximum esteem triumphs in the environment that is inclusive to all the personnel. According to (Harzing and Adler 2016, p.143), the self-esteem amongst the workforce creates a conducive platform for the peaceful performance of the employees.

On the other hand, we would ensure that there are set techniques of solving the problems that affect the workers. The proposals by Dr. Scott Page model direct the administrators to conduct the background evaluation of the emerging issues and conflicts and finally give a fair judgment. The maximum appropriate eradication of disputes would assist our establishment in winning good reputation amidst the workers, thus boosting their trust and confidence in the organization.

Promotion of Professionalism and Ethos to Motivate Workers

Ethics in the workplace scopes from the level of trust. Therefore, the pre-requisite of the morals is the belief that is initiated in the entire culture of the business by the management. Butt et al., (2015, p.92) strongly correlated the dominance of the job ethics with the employee's motivation. That is because the conducive working environment where workers feel the value of their concerns steer the urge to exploit their efforts sufficiently to achieve the organization's expectations.

To promote ethics, we would value the hierarchical needs of the workers. The ethical theory by Abraham Maslow identifies the necessary requirements in which their satisfaction influence the human behavior. For instance, defines and classify the psychological necessities like air, food, safety issues like job security and shelter, and water (Guillén, Ferrero, and Hoffman 2015, p.803). On the other hand, the model introduces the self-actualization that defines the level of satisfaction as perceived by the beneficiaries of the services. In practice, we would ensure that we avail the essentials and their accessibility to every personnel. Our establishment will be safe to work in, pollution free and have minimum risk factors and chances of the accidents.

Also, the better communication strategies would initiate a unique culture amongst the recruits and improve on the performance scale. Notably, the platforms where junior workers freely share the information with the senior leaders and among their colleagues enhance their trust with the working organization and would like to show more effort in their duties. Similarly, according to Mawere et al. (2016, np), the ethical model by Abraham Maslow affirms that open conversation imparts the sound understanding of the requirements of the organizations to the employees.

As well, we would empower our employees to have an awareness concerning the jeopardies and stressors of a job. To achieve full enabling of the workers, managers often clarify the moral values that they expect their subjects to adopt and the importance of upholding them as outlined in the ethical theory. Similarly, I would comprehensively explain the moral values to the staff and ensure that everybody practices it out of will rather than being forced.

On the other hand, ethics and professionalism are attained through collaboration where every public servant values the input of another. In the moral theory, Abraham Maslow further contends that self-promotion and selfishness creates a barrier to the achievement of ethos (Guillén, Ferrero, and Hoffman 2015, p.803). Generally, the self-centered team members would compromise some of the activities and decisions of the organizations’ values. Accordingly, I would ensure the proper coordination with the departmental heads to enforce reputed philosophy that is readily acceptable to the employees without anxieties. Of course, dispelling the elements of doubt regarding the integrities and the operational standards continually advance the level of preference among the recruits who would purport for the long-term stay in the establishment.

Additionally, I would initiate a platform for encouraging every worker for the achievement and effort made. The use of open statements in response to healthy behaviors and performance like ‘you have done well, keep it up’ would continually impress our employees and motivate them to show extra efforts. Likewise, the ethical theory by Maslow affirms that inducement of the recruits is vital by appreciating their input in embracing the morals (Saleem 2017, p.345). Besides developing the moralities, acknowledgment gives a platform for the professionalism development since the personnel usually concentrate on doing the best to earn indebtedness, thus appearing ever motivated with the business.


Overall, motivating employees is a critical task that requires keenness, professionalism, and patience since there is variability of people with different competencies and level of learning. The leadership theories that relevantly apply to the worker's management include, trait, behavioral, and contingency models. On the other hand, the motivation platforms like the expectation define the level of monetary and non-fiscal assets that assist in boosting the morale of the recruits. Similarly, Hertzberg’s Two Factor Theory outlines the rewards that managers would use to retain the staff. As well, the Kotter’s 8-step model explains how the administrators can manage the changes while maintaining contact with the personnel and their morale.

Additionally, the study has used Taylor Cox, and Nancy Adler’s model to explain the diversity is running in the workplace. Notably, promotion of ethics and professionalism calls for the prioritization of the hierarchical needs of the workers, improved communication techniques, and a better understanding of the job challenges. Additionally, it requires collaboration amongst the staff members, and full acknowledgment of the merits that are achieved by the workforce, either in a group or individually. Therefore, managers should be very cautious in studying the requirements of every operative and show commitment in achieving their needs. Besides, they should encourage the development of good positive culture and good working conditions and environment that will contain their subjects to have the long-term contract with the establishment alongside improving significantly to increase the efficiency.



Bastedo, M.N., Samuels, E. and Kleinman, M., 2014. Do charismatic presidents influence college applications and alumni donations? Organizational identity and performance in US higher education. Higher Education, 68(3), 397.

Burgess, D., 2005. What motivates employees to transfer knowledge outside their work unit?. The Journal of Business Communication (1973), 42(4), 324-348.

Butt, M., Hu, P., Shafi, K. and Malik, B.H., 2015. Study of organizational environment, incentives, and promotion and its effect on employees motivation. International Journal of Academic Research in Accounting, Finance and Management Sciences, 5(3), 91-99.

Cerasoli, C.P., Nicklin, J.M., and Ford, M.T., 2014. Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic incentives jointly predict performance: A 40-year meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 140(4), 980.

Goetsch, D.L. and Davis, S.B., 2014. Quality management for organizational excellence. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Guillén, M., Ferrero, I. and Hoffman, W.M., 2015. The neglected ethical and spiritual motivations in the workplace. Journal of Business Ethics, 128(4), 803.

Harzing, A.W. and Adler, N.J., 2016. Disseminating knowledge: From potential to reality—new open-access journals collide with convention. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 15(1), 140-156.

Hornstein, H.A., 2015. The integration of project management and organizational change management is now a necessity. International Journal of Project Management, 33(2), 291-298.

Landis, E.A., Hill, D., and Harvey, M.R., 2014. A synthesis of leadership theories and styles. Journal of Management Policy and Practice, 15(2), 97.

Latham, J.R., 2014. Leadership for quality and innovation: Challenges, theories, and a framework for future research. Quality Management Journal, 21 (1), 5.

Lozano, J.F. and Escrich, T., 2017. Cultural diversity in business: A critical reflection on the ideology of tolerance. Journal of Business Ethics, 142(4), 679.

Lukwago, G., Basheka, B., and Odubuker, D.E.P., 2014. Using Herzberg’s two factor theory to develop a construct validity for motivation of employees in Uganda’s National Agricultural Research Organisation (NARO): a preliminary analysis. Global Journal of Commerce & Management Perspective, 3(3), 59-65.

Maruping, L.M., Bala, H., Venkatesh, V. and Brown, S.A., 2017. Going beyond intention: Integrating behavioral expectation into the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 68(3), 623-637.

Mawere, M., Mubaya, T.R., van Reisen, M.E.H. and Stam, G.V., 2016. Maslow’s Theory of Human Motivation and its Deep Roots in Individualism: Interrogating Maslow’s Applicability in Africa. In: Theory, Knowledge, Development and Politics: What Role for the Academy in the Sustainability of Africa? Langaa RPCIG.

Ng, H.S., and Kee, D.M.H., 2013. Organisational Culture can be a Double-edged Sword for Firm Performance. Research Journal of Business Management, 7(1), 41-52.

Olafsen, A.H., Halvari, H., Forest, J. and Deci, E.L., 2015. Show them the money? The role of pay, managerial need support, and justice in a self‚Äźdetermination theory model of intrinsic work motivation. Scandinavian journal of psychology, 56(4), 447-457.

Saleem, A., 2017. Erudition Through Maslow’s Theory with the perspective of Humanism. International Journal of Innovative Knowledge Concepts, 5(1).